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1. CAGE - Adapted to Include Drugs (CAGE-AID)

Year: 1991

Developers:
Brown, Richard L.; Saunders, Laura A.

Description:
The CAGE-AID modifies the CAGE questions for use in screening for drugs other than alcohol. Like the CAGE, the CAGE-AID focuses on lifetime use; although individuals who are drug dependent may screen positive, individuals who are at risk may not not. In a study of its usefulness in a community family practice (Brown & Rounds, 1991), it had a sensitivity of 79 percent and a specificity of 77 percent. The authors suggested that stigma associated with illicit drugs may have limited its sensitivity. Limitations of the CAGE-AID are similar to the CAGE, in that it does not distinguish between active and inactive problems and has not been validated for identifying hazardous or harmful use.

1. Have you ever felt that you ought to Cut down on your drinking or drug use?
2. Have people Annoyed you by criticizing your drinking or drug use?
3. Have you ever felt bad or Guilty about your drinking or drug use?
4. Have you ever had a drink or used drugs first thing in the morning (Eye-opener) to steady your nerves, e.g. get rid of a hangover, or get the day started?

One or more "yes" responses constitute a positive screening test. Note, however, that due to language barriers, individual interpretation of the questions, or other confounding factors, individuals answering "no" to all CAGE -AID questions may still be at risk due to elevated drinking or drug use levels.

The CAGE-AID has been validated as four-item self-report and parent-report versions as a screen for substance use disorders among adolescents in mental health care.


Instrument Use & Availability

This measure is in the public domain.

Download the instrument: http://www.integration.samhsa.gov/clinical-practice/screening-tools (SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solutions)

http://adai.uw.edu/instruments/pdf/CAGE-AID.pdf (Download on ADAI website.)

Permanent URL for this page:
http://bit.ly/CAGE-AID_inst

Instrument Details:

Source Reference:Brown RL, Rounds LA. Conjoint screening questionnaires for alcohol and other drug abuse: Criterion validity in a primary care practice. Wis Med J 1995;94:135-140.
Population studied:Adolescents; Co-occurring clients; Adults
Instrument Type:Screening
Recommended By:TIP 16; TIP 24
Administration/Scoring:One or more "yes" responses constitute a positive screening test. Note, however, that due to language barriers, individual interpretation of the questions, or other confounding factors, individuals answering "no" to all CAGE -AID questions may still be at risk due to elevated drinking or drug use levels.

Supporting References:

  • Hinkin CH, Castellon SA, Dickson-Fuhrman E, Daum G, Jaffe J, Jarvik L. Screening for drug and alcohol abuse among older adults using a modified version of the CAGE. Am J Addict 2001;10:319-326.
  • Couwenbergh C; Van Der Gaag RJ; Koeter M; De Ruiter C; Van Den Brink W. Screening for substance abuse among adolescents: validity of the CAGE-AID in youth mental health care. Substance Use and Misuse 2009;44(6):823-834.

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