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1. Opioid-Related Behaviours In Treatment (ORBIT)

Year: 2016

Larance, Briony; Bruno, Raimondo; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Degenhardt, Louisa; Black, Emma; Brown, Amanda; Nielsen, Suzanne; Dunlop, Adrian; Holland, Rohan; Cohen, Milton; Mattick, Richard P.

The Opioid-Related Behaviours In Treatment (ORBIT) scale is brief (10-item), reliable, and validated for use in diverse patient groups receiving opioids. It focuses on measuring recent opioid-related behavior, rather than the usual lifetime measure. Participants rate each item as having occurred "very often" (4), "often" (3), "sometimes" (2), "hardly ever" (1), or "never" (0) in the preceding 3 months, with the final score derived from a tally of the individual items (0-40). The ORBIT has a number of potential applications: clinicians can use it in developing and reviewing treatment plans regarding opioid medications (the individual items can serve as a checklist to prompt clinical discussions); researchers can use it to describe and quantify aberrant behaviors (using the presence of individual items and/or scale total); and both groups can use the total ORBIT score for assessment of change over time.

Instrument Use & Availability

The ORBIT's 10 items can be found in Table 5 of the source reference (Larance B et al, 2016).

For more information, contact:
Briony Larance
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre
University of New South Wales
22-32 King St.
Randwick 2031 Australia

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Instrument Details:

Source Reference:Larance B, et al. Development of a brief tool for monitoring aberrant behaviours among patients receiving long-term opioid therapy: The Opioid-Related Behaviours In Treatment (ORBIT) scale. Drug Alcohol Depend 2016;159:42-52. [doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.11.026]
Validity/Reliability:The ORBIT exhibits good face validity and acceptable test–retest reliability that can be used in both clinical and research settings for monitoring patient progress and measuring change over time. It also demonstrated good concurrent validity with measures of opioid use disorders, depression, stress, and poorer quality of life in the total sample (Larance et al, 2016).

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