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1. Normative Beliefs about Smoking Scale, Normative Beliefs about Smokeless Tobacco Scale

Year: 2007

Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Dalton, Madeline A.

The 11-item Normative Beliefs about Smoking Scale captures the multidimensional nature of normative beliefs toward smoking and is associated with smoking status among youth. The scale uses 11 items to measure smoking normative beliefs. Three items address perceived disapproval (e.g., "According to my parents, it is very important for me not to smoke cigarettes"), four look at perceived prevalence (e.g. "What percentage of 8th graders smoke cigarettes at least once a month?"), and the final assess normative beliefs (e.g. "In general, more 'cool' people smoke cigarettes than 'uncool' people").

For the Smokeless Tobacco version, "smoke cigarettes" is changed to "use smokeless tobacco."

Instrument Use & Availability

Copyright information unavailable. The original scale's items can be found in table 2 of the Primack et al. 2007 reference. The Smokeless Tobacco version can be found in Table 3 of the Adkinson et al. 2016 article.

For more information, contact:
Brian A. Primack, MD, EdM
Center for Research on Health Care
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

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Instrument Details:

Source Reference:Primack BA, Switzer GE, Dalton MA. Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007;161(5):434–439. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.161.5.434

Adkison SE, O'Connor RJ, Bansal-Travers M, Cummings KM, Rees VW, Hatsukami DK. Validation of a measure of normative beliefs about smokeless tobacco use. Nicotine Tobacco Res 2016;18(5):801-8. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv156
Population studied:Adolescents; Smokers
Instrument Type:Assessment

Supporting References:

  • Lipperman-Kreda S, Grube JW. Students’ perception of community disapproval, perceived enforcement of school antismoking policies, personal beliefs, and their cigarette smoking behaviors: results from a structural equation modeling analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(5):531–539. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp033.

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