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1. Gambling Pathways Questionnaire (GPQ)

Year: 2017

Nower, Lia; Blaszczynski, Alex

The "Pathways Model" developed by Blaszczynski and Nower proposes that there are three subtypes of gamblers, distinguised by the presence or absence of specific premorbid psychopathology and biological vulnerabilities despite displaying similar phenomenological features. There are three types of pathway gamblers: <

  • Pathway 1 gamblers are "behaviorally conditioned," and display an absence of premorbid psychopathology. They develop problems mainly in rsponse to reinforcement contingencies, cognitive distortions regaridng the probability of winning, and the nature of randomness and control.
  • Pathway 2 gamblers are "emotionally vulnerable," and present with premorbid mood disorders, a history of poor coping and problem-solving skills, children disturbances, and major traumatic life events that lead them to gamble for escape from aversive mood states.
  • Pathway 3 gamblers, a subset of Pathway 2 gamblers, possess all those same vulnerabilitys, but are distinguised by biologically-based traits of impulsivity and attentional deficits, as well as antisocial personality traits that result in maladaptive behaviors and comorbid addictions.

The 48-item Gambling Pathways Questionnaire was based on this model and designed to reflect the concepts in the 3 Pathways (here called Clusters): Cluster 1: Behaviorally Conditioned, Cluster 2: Emotionally Vulnerable, and Cluster 3: Antisocial Impulsivist. Analysis of the measure identified 6 factors: Antisocial Impulsive Risk-Taking, Stress-Coping, Mood Pre-Problem Gambling Onset, Mood Post-Problem-Gambling Onset, Child Maltreatment, and Meaning Motivation. The measure features a list of statements that refer to the respondents views about gambling and beliefs about themselves and their lives, feelings and behaviors experienced before and after their gambling became a problem for them, and experiences they had as a child or teenager. Respondents rate each statement on a scale from 1 to 6, where 1 is "Strongly Disagree" and 6 is "Strongly Agree."

Instrument Use & Availability

Copyright information unavailable. A copy of the scale, administration and scoring instructions, and a scoring sheet can be found in the Appendix of the source reference (Nower & Blaszczynski, 2017), which has been uploaded to Oregon's Problem Gambling Services website at the link below.

Download the instrument: (Oregon Problem Gambling Services)

For more information, contact:
Lia Nower, JD, PhD
Center for Gambling Studies
Rutgers University

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Instrument Details:

Source Reference:Nower L, Blaszczynski A. Development and validation of the Gambling Pathways Questionnaire (GPQ). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2017;31(1):95-109. [doi: 10.1037/adb0000234]
Population studied:Gamblers; Adults
Instrument Type:Assessment; Self-administered questionnaire
Administration/Scoring:Scoring of the GPQ is based on sum totals of high/medium/low responses to the instrument's nine sub-scales. Specific scoring instructions, as well as a scoring sheet used to make the calculations, can be found in the Appendix of the source reference (Nower & Blaszczynski, 2017).
Validity/Reliability:The Gambling Pathways Questionnaire showed excellent internal consistency with good to high reliability found for each of the six factors, ranging from .851 to .945. Cluster analysis results demonstrated that the three-factor model produced good model fit to the data: Cluster 1 (Behaviorally Conditioned Subtype), Cluster 2 (Emotionally Vulnerable Subtype) and Cluster 3 (Antisocial, Impulsive Risk-Taking Subtype).

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